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Какой вред экологии приносит гидроразрыв (ГРП) пластов при добыче сланцевой нефти и газа?

Считается, что впервые гидроразрыв пласта (ГРП) был применён в США в 1947 году компанией Halliburton. В 1953 году д-р физ.-мат. наук С. А. Христианович и д-р тех. наук Ю. П. Желтов описали математическую модель вертикальной трещины и дали теоретическое обоснование ГРП-метода добычи нефти и газа. Сегодня проектирование гидроразрыва ведется с помощью полученных ими формул.

Дело в том, что традиционные способы добычи позволяют извлекать не более 25-45% всего разведанного объема месторождения: при первичной добыче (нефть/газ фонтанирует за счет естественного высокого давления в пласте) – 5-15%, при вторичной – когда в пласт дополнительно нагнетают воду или природный/попутный газ – 35-45%. Оставшаяся нефть (55-65%) находится вне основной скважины в низко продуктивных породах сложного строения.

Гидроразрыв пласта заключается в искусственном создании в разрабатываемом горизонтальном пласте месторождения нефти/газа избыточного давления и трещин для увеличения притока добываемой смеси к устью скважины. Технология включает закачку в скважину с помощью мощных насосов специальных растворов (вода, песок, гель, кислота, проппант), химическая реакция которых позволяет открыть и соединить поры плотных пород, что обеспечивает высвобождение нефти/газа ещё на 20 -30 %.

Главная проблема гидроразрыва состоит в том, что в результате происходит нарушение естественной структуры недр:

  • попадание химических реагентов и газов в грунтовые воды, в подземные реки и артезианские бассейны и их заражение,
  • нарушение естественной структуры верхних слоёв земной коры, имеющих важное значение для баланса гидросферы, биосферы и деятельного слоя суши,
  • проседание и провалы грунтов,
  • сейсмические толчки.
На Земле всё взаимосвязано: плибыль одних и ущерб других, потребительство и экологические последствия

Эти проблемы не так заметны и актуальны для ненаселенных районов, но жизненно опасны в регионах проживания людей, особенно, в условиях дефицита чистой пресной воды. Именно поэтому сегодня ГРП частично запрещён в некоторых странах Европы и других регионах Земли.

Вот такие бывают высокие технологии…

Вероятно, необходим строгий государственный и общественный контроль деятельности нефте- и газодобывающих компаний в части применения ГРП-метода, чтобы полностью исключить все связанные с ним экологические риски.

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